By Nancy E. Oliveira, Editor
Plan Now for Pretrial, Probation, and Parole Supervision Week— July 21-27, 2013
Now is the time to start planning how you will acknowledge the American Probation and Parole Association’s Pretrial, Probation, and Parole Supervision Week— July 21-27, 2013. This will be a time to recognize the accomplishments of the thousands of dedicated people working in our criminal justice system in the areas of pretrial services, probation, and parole.
The APPA says of these professionals: “They are Changing Lives and Building Futures every day.”
For more information: Pretrial, Probation, and Parole Supervision Week
Image provided by appa-net.org.
Next Week: Summer Reading Info-graphic
Next week, before going on summer vacation, we will post a wonderful and fun summer reading info-graphic and article. Whether you’re looking for a book to read yourself or to share with a Changing Lives Through Literature group or other reading group, next week’s info-graphic will help you choose enjoyable and meaningful reading material.
Blog Takes Summer Break
This blog will go on summer break effective May 19, 2013. We will resume posting new material in September.
We’ve recently launched our 65th Infographic in the FryDayPoll series: “Should The Death Penalty Be Abolished?” It explores the history of the death penalty being practiced as a form of punishment across the globe. There are several facts and statistics that suggest a trend towards abolishing it. This well-researched infographic gives a clear picture of death penalty practices and various other factors that influence its adoption as a form of punishment.
Image provided by Saroj Kumar – MapsofWorld.com
By Kyle T. Green
With the issue of prison overpopulation on the nation’s collective mind, a closer look at alternative sentencing trends may help to provide answers. Since 1997, total state and federal incarceration rates have gradually increased, by a total of about ten percent to date. The increase corresponds with a consistent decreasing trend in alternative sentencing such as probation, probation with confinement, and prison with community confinement. Perhaps more surprisingly, is the sizable disparity in alternative sentencing between citizens and non-citizens, linking the incarceration rate growth to the rise in non-citizen offenders in the federal sentencing population.
Alternative Sentencing Disparity
In a report entitled “Alternative Sentencing in the Federal Criminal Justice System,” the United States Sentencing Commission found that, while non-citizens represent only 8.6% of the nation’s population, they comprise upwards of 15% of the total prison population and nearly 30% of the Federal prison population. According to the study, sentencing policies differ vastly between U.S. citizens and non-citizens, as non-citizens rarely receive alternative sentencing. For the purpose of comparing rates and procedures of citizens and non-citizens in the federal system, the USSC divides offender sentences into four zones:
- Zone A: 0-6 month confinement—probation only; probation with confinement; prison with community confinement; imprisonment
- Zone B: 1-12 months confinement—probation with community confinement can be substituted for imprisonment; one month of the total term imposed must be imprisonment
- Zone C: 8-16 months confinement—imprisonment for at least half of the minimum range of the sentence, with the remaining half in community confinement
- Zone D: 1 year-life—no probation or community confinement
The vast majority (between 86% and 95%) of non-citizens in Zones A, B and C were sentenced to prison, while far less U.S. citizens in corresponding zones were sentenced to imprisonment.
U.S. citizen offenders in Zone A have consistently been sentenced to probation at a rate of approximately 75 percent. Probation for non-citizen offenders in the corresponding zone had dropped to 13.1% in 2007, making the ratio of alternative sentencing almost six to one, of U.S. citizens versus non-citizens.
Trends are similar in Zones B and C: 30-50% of citizens are sentenced to probation versus 3-4% of non-citizens. Only in Zone D do sentences correlate. Zone D sentences do not fluctuate as much due to the harshness of the crimes involved. The great majority of both U.S. citizens and non-citizens are sentenced to prison for Zone D-related crimes.
Sentencing Policy and Antiquated Law
The explanation of this disparity lies in a mix of sentencing policy and antiquated law. For instance, illegal aliens are subject to deportation and account for approximately 80.3% of non-citizen Federal offenders. The Bureau of Prisons assigns deportable aliens to confinement at their second highest custody level, requiring institutional supervision and prohibiting work details or other programs outside the secure institution.
At the same time, since 1917 there has been a law which provides that immigrants can be deported only after they have served their sentences here in the U.S., in order to ensure that they were adequately punished. Therefore, an illegal immigrant who is convicted of a crime, even an immigration offense, is automatically sent to Federal prison, where they must serve their sentence with little to no chance for parole or other alternatives before they can be deported.
Deportation Loophole as a Solution to Prison Overpopulation
Now, a loophole does exist that allows immigrants to be deported without serving their full sentences if they were convicted of non-violent offenses. However, the appropriate power must request early deportation and correction officials almost never use the exception. Thus, it is clear that some change must be made in the imprisonment-before-deportation rule to reduce the number of non-violent illegal immigrants being held in the system. Amending the law to allow for immediate deportation of immigration related offenses could, not only balance the disparity of alternative sentencing, but ease overcrowding and prison budget crises as well.
Kyle T. Green is a criminal defense attorney in Mesa, Arizona. Mr. Green has handled cases on both sides of the law and is a passionate advocate for justice.
By Eve Pearce
One of the main problems with the prison system is that inmates are often clueless as to what they are going to do when they are finally released. This can lead prisoners to believe that they have no choice but to return to a life of crime the minute they are set free. For some, writing can provide a career path as well as a means of self-expression.
A perfect example of this is the case of former drug baron Shaun Attwood, who served twenty-six months in prison after being caught running an ecstasy ring in Arizona. During his incarceration, Attwood sent out details of everyday prison life to be published on an Internet blog. His blog was featured in a number of different national newspapers in his home country of England and sparked a passion for writing within him.
He has since had a highly successful book published entitled Hard Time, which describes his descent into crime and subsequent incarceration. He also won a Koestler Trust award for literature, which is an arts prize awarded to prisoners and ex-offenders. Creative writing has ensured that Attwood has remained on the straight and narrow.
Maricopa County Jail
Attwood was incarcerated in Maricopa County (Arizona) Jail, which is run by strict authoritarian Joe Arpaio and regarded by many people as America’s toughest jail. Attwood went from a life of drug-taking and hedonistic excess to having to quit cigarettes, alcohol and narcotics and survive amongst murderers, crystal meth addicts and violent white supremacist gang members. The Maricopa County Jail is famous for its strict routine. Inmates must go without nicotine, R- and X-rated television, and coffee. They are made to wear pink uniforms and fed food that some people argue is not fit for human consumption.
Attwood learned that crime does not pay. His blog did not attempt to justify his actions; he admitted that he had been extremely stupid. It merely chronicled the conditions that he was forced to live in and questioned whether the Maricopa County Jail was conducive to producing rehabilitated prisoners or whether it would send them back into the world worse than they were when they arrived in the jail.
Upon his release from prison, Attwood wrote Hard Time, which told his story from start to finish and concluded by saying how stupid and misguided his criminal career had been. He managed to secure a publishing deal with Mainstream Publishing and his book received critical acclaim. It was featured in numerous local and national newspapers and even appeared on Sky News.
He has since released two e-books and has a third book on the way, chronicling the time that he spent as an ecstasy dealer and reflecting upon how foolish he was. Instead of committing crime, he now travels around his native England, giving talks to schoolchildren about the dangers of breaking the law. Had he not had writing to occupy his time, who knows how differently his story might have ended.
From Jail to a Writing Career
One of the dangers of being released from prison is that an individual can have nothing to go out to. If somebody feels that he or she is doomed to a life of joblessness due to his or her criminal record then lawbreaking might take place as a result.
Writing can provide an alternative.
Everybody has a story to tell and for those who possess sufficient talent, putting pen to paper can produce financial rewards. It can mean the difference between leaving an institution without a clue what to do next and being set free with dreams of being a successful author.
Not everybody can embark upon a writing career but the most important thing is that the possibility of doing so can give people hope. It can also give individuals a much-needed channel for creative expression that can help them to reflect upon the mistakes that they have made in the past and ensure that they avoid making similar mistakes throughout the years to come.
Sometimes people commit crime because they genuinely have no idea what else to do. Writing can provide an alternative and help keep people on the correct path.
Eve Pearce is a full-time feature writer as well as an art and photography aficionado. She has written for numerous sites on various topics over the past few years.
By Jack Meyers
As alternative sentencing gains in popularity, many will wonder just how this form of “punishment” enlightens offenders. Instead of sticking people in jail to think about what they have done—usually devising better ways to be criminals—literature and support groups can help offenders realize how their decisions affect those around them.
Characters and stories in literature can impact how an individual processes information. A well written novel correlating to an offender’s specific crime can create more of a positive impact on the offender’s mind, compared to being locked up. How can literature be so inspiring to those who read it?
1. Caring about what happens
Well written novels can develop characters that readers can connect with on an emotional level. These connections can stir emotions as tribulations unfold within the novels causing readers to care about what happens to the characters.
Connecting with literary characters can lead offenders to emotionally bond with the stories. Understanding the characters’ decisions can help offenders begin to understand why circumstances happen and how to deal with them in ways other than breaking the law.
2. Analyzing the affects of actions
If offenders can discover how their actions affect the world around them, it could lead to enlightening realizations of how their actions hurt those involved.
The imagination is a powerful tool. It can create objects of wonder or items of destruction. Using their imaginations could help them realize the damage they have wrought with their actions. By helping offenders analyze their circumstances in relation to literature, there is a good chance that they will have an epiphany about their own experiences and how their surroundings were affected.
3. Getting support
One of the most important aspects of alternative sentencing through literature is the presence of supportive individuals who help offenders discuss the nature of each chosen novel.
Most of the support groups using alternative sentencing methods consist of visits by parole officers and the judges who sentenced the offenders. This could be a vital piece of the puzzle—it shows the offenders that there are those that care about whether they succeed or not.
Whether it is the Bible or a coveted novel, the stories and characters in books can reveal a lot about who you are. This isn’t saying that books can cure all criminal intentions, but they can go a long way in helping some offenders see how their actions can lead to a ripple effect in the pond of life.
Jack Meyers is a regular contributor for www.nannybackgroundcheck.com. As a detective he wants to spread the knowledge of the terrible things that can happen when people don’t fully verify the credentials of a caregiver or any employee. He also writes for various law enforcement blogs and sites.
The author of the abbreviated article below presents his case for enrolling in online degree programs and speaks specifically about online criminal justice programs. Because many of you who read this blog work in criminal justice, I ask you to submit your comments regarding this topic.
A question to get the discussion started:
Compared to traditional criminal justice degree programs, do you think online criminal justice degrees provide a comparable level of preparation for criminal justice careers?
I look forward to your comments.
A case for criminal justice e-learning
By Stephen Strings
A proper education is highly esteemed most anywhere in the world. Attaining a degree is regarded as a major achievement and this creates better chances for you to land a job. However not everybody gets selected in local institutions of higher learning and this has rendered many jobless. The good news is that there is online learning.
How online education is favourable
Online education has many advantages. If you have a job already and wonder if you can enroll in a criminal justice degree successfully and still work, you have nothing to worry about—online degrees are very flexible. Another great advantage is that you get to interact with other people who have different frames of mind and you can challenge yourself.
An online criminal justice degree is good for you because you get to study forensic science criminology and so many other interesting and exciting topics. When you do this online you get to meet people and network which increases your chances of getting a good job. When you take up an online degree, you are taught by staff who are dedicated and the best of the best.
Cross boarders and expand your horizons by enrolling in an online criminal justice degree.
Stephen Strings is a blogger who works for online degrees provider E Degree USA. He loves to write articles and blogs on online education. He has covered a variety of topics like online criminal justice degrees, business degrees and more providing tips and suggestions to students worldwide.
Listen to Dr. David Sherman of Brandeis University interview Changing Lives Through Literature co-founder Dr. Robert Waxler. They talk about the relationship between literature and jail in this “Convicted Reading” Literature Lab podcast.
By Bettina Borders and Estella Rebeiro
One day several years ago, Katherine Knowles, the director of the Zeiterion, approached the Juvenile Court to offer the possibility for court-involved youth to attend Zeiterion performances. Ms. Knowles envisioned the Z as a valuable community resource and wanted to extend it’s reach to include everyone. In her mind, this also meant the kids most folks want to forget.
There are many words used to describe these kids, trouble makers, delinquents, “druggies,” problem kids, misguided, etc. Ms. Knowles thought that perhaps some of them could find something at the Z to facilitate “turning them around.” It sounded good to the court. Why not try it. By and large these were kids with little opportunity to attend the Z on their own resources. Thus through the vision of Ms. Knowles and the generosity of her board, an ostensibly unlikely partnership began. Under the supervision of probation, young people from our court, and often their families, began to attend the varied theatrical performances offered by the Z.
There were several permutations to this partnership, which is part of two alternative sentencing initiatives supervised by probation and the court. At one point Ms. Knowles identified an anonymous donor who wanted to have the kids attend the theater in style. A limousine appeared at the courthouse, picked the kids up and drove them around various scenic areas of the city before dropping them, and their parents, at the Z. Later they were picked up and returned to the courthouse.
At another time, the youth participating in an alternative sentencing program, Changing Lives Through Literature, read “To Kill a Mockingbird” and later attended the play, courtesy of the Z. There have been plays, musicals, storytelling, dance, theater and magic performances these youth have had the opportunity to see. But the question remains: What has it meant?
For most of these youth and their families, this is an extraordinary experience. First, they are having a wonderful experience together, one that most of us take for granted. The probation officers who accompany these youth have watched while the demeanor of these kids transforms as the evening unfolds. They are indistinguishable from the rest of the audience; polite, engaged, attentive, well behaved, well dressed, inquisitive, mesmerized by the magical extravaganzas they are watching. They are out of their “comfort zone” and yet “belong” in this new environment. It is wonderful to hear about as the probation officers report back to the court.
But the transformation does not end there. The youth are asked to write about their experiences or discuss them in groups. Each youth is excited, energized and articulate when dissecting the play or gushing over the virtuosity of dancers or musicians. Many “thank yous” by letter and by mouth are sent by the youths. Another lesson learned. These are experiences we want for all of the youth in our community and Ms. Knowles and the Board of the Z must be commended for making them accessible to those teens least likely to find their way to the beautiful Z.
Art, we know, can transform people, all people. Ms. Knowles and her board have set a high standard for accessibility to art. One that can be replicated in many other areas of our community, particularly for youth. Our youth have much to learn from its leaders and the places frequented by them. Our court certainly appreciates the efforts made by the Z to include these youth. As Ms. Knowles says at the beginning of a performance: “Let the magic begin.” Perhaps she is on to something.
Honorable Bettina Borders is first justice of Bristol County Juvenile Court in New Bedford. Estella Rebeiro is senior probation officer. This op-ed was originally posted in the South Coast Today.
By Jeffrey Roe
Most people intending to become librarians often have strong memories associated with their school libraries and the people who worked in them. Those memories are likely what draws some librarians back to primary school, where they work to foster and promote literacy, learning, and, simply, a love of books. Others opt to go into research, working in high profile special collections with fragile documents full of unique information or of particular significance to history.
Few library students probably envision working in a prison library as their ideal place of employment. Contrary to what you might think, working as a prison librarian isn’t a maligned path so much as an overlooked one; it’s simply not a job on most people’s radar. This is unfortunate, as working in a prison library offers librarians a unique environment, one that is proactive in promoting education, literacy, and civic engagement, among other ideals closely related to the mission of libraries everywhere.
Becoming a prison librarian isn’t particularly difficult. As with all professional libraries, prison librarians must have a degree in library science, generally at the master’s level (MLS). Experience working in a civilian library (such as a school or public library) is also generally required. Some experience working in corrections is also ideal, but not required; it’s simply a good idea to understand the constraints that prison puts upon both the incarcerated and those who serve them. You could accomplish this by volunteering at a prison.
It’s important to understand what a library is to someone who’s been incarcerated: It is a place where inmates escape from the drudgery of day-to-day life, where they learn to improve their literacy, write letters, watch instructional videos and so much more. Prison libraries don’t differ much from public libraries in terms of content, though some do have dedicated legal sections. Prison libraries even sometimes host book clubs! Library services can be integrated with other services for the incarcerated, like visitation.
Prison libraries, like public libraries, suffer at the whims of state finances, but differ from their public counterparts in other significant ways. Internet is often unavailable to inmates or librarians; when it is available to librarians, it is only during hours when inmates are not present. Prison librarians also act as corrections officers, taking on the responsibility of supervising both the inmates working in the library and those using its services. Generally, inmates tend to treat librarians with a degree of respect since the services the library provides offer prisoners a respite from prison life and a way to better themselves and their situation. Prisoners who engage in educational programs, such as library services, tend to stay out of prison upon release at higher rate than those without access to such programs. Just another reason to consider becoming a prison librarian.
Jeffrey Roe is the community manager for the University of Southern California’s Rossier School of Education. USC Rossier Online provides current teachers and those working on becoming a teacher with the opportunity to earn a masters in education completely online. In his free time, Jeff enjoys attending concerts and developing his talents as a videomaker.